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    Definition Classes
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  • package treelog

    TreeLog enables logging as a tree structure so that comprehensive logging does not become incomprehensible.

    Introduction

    TreeLog enables logging as a tree structure so that comprehensive logging does not become incomprehensible.

    It is often necessary to understand exactly what happened in a computation, not just that it succeeded or failed, but what was actually done and with what data. TreeLog produces a description of a computation (along with a result) as a hierarchical log of computations that led to the result. The tree could be logged as text or stored in a database so that users can see a detailed audit trail of the processing that has occurred for particular entities.

    Note that in the remainder of this document, results of producing log trees will be shown by rendering the tree textually, but that is only one possible way.

    Nodes in the log tree can be annotated with important information for your program to use later. This is useful, for example, when you want to audit a process that affects multiple entities, and you want to ensure that the audit trail is associated with each of the modified entities.

    DescribedComputation

    All of this works by fting the intermediate and final results of computations and the description of the steps into a type called DescribedComputation (declared in LogTreeSyntax).

    Some Simple Lifting

    You can produce a DescribedComputation very simply with many of the methods in LogTreeSyntax. The simplest few are:

    // This is a concrete implementation of LogTreeSyntax that is provided for you
    // to use if you don't need to use annotations (see later)
    import treelog.LogTreeSyntaxWithoutAnnotations._
    
    val result1 = success(2 * 3, "Calculated product")
    // result1 is now a DescribedComputation and carries the successful result and
    // a single node tree telling us that the product was calculated. See below for how to
    // extract these things.
    
    val result2 = failure("It's all wrong")
    // result2 is now a DescribedComputation whose value and tree both tell us that things
    // went wrong
    
    val result3 = (2 * 3) ~> "Calculated product"
    // The same as result1
    
     val result4 = (2 * 3) ~> (p => "Calculated product: " + p)
    // The same as result1, except the description in the tree node will be "Calculated product: 6"

    result3 and result4 above introduce the first pieces of syntax related to producing DescribedComputations. In this case it lifts the value into the DescribedComputation and creates a leaf node in the associated log tree. See LeafSyntax for related simple syntax for leaves.

    Extracting the Result and Log

    When a computation result is lifted into a DescribedComputation by one of the many methods in the LogTreeSyntax trait, it is possible to retrieve the value of the computation like this:

    import treelog.LogTreeSyntaxWithoutAnnotations._
    val foo = 1 ~> "Here's one"
    val value = foo.run.value
    // value will now be equal to scalaz.\/-(1), which represents a successful computation.

    The value is a scalaz Either (scalaz.\/). Following the usual convention:

    • If it a left (-\/) then the computation is a failure.
    • If it is a right (\/-), then the computation is a success.

    Likewise, it is possible to retrieve the log tree like this:

    import treelog.LogTreeSyntaxWithoutAnnotations._
    val foo = 1 ~> "Here's one"
    val logtree = foo.run.written
    // logtree will now be an instance of LogTree which is a type alias which in this case expands to:
    // Tree[LogTreeLabel[Nothing]](DescribedLogTreeLabel[Nothing]("Here's one", true, Set[Nothing]())
    // Where:
    //   - "Here's one" is the description provided in the declaration of foo
    //   - true indicates that the computation represented by the node was successful
    //   - the empty set represents the annotations specified for this node

    It may seem strange that both the value and the log tree provide indications of success and failure (the value through the use of scalaz.\/, and the log tree with a boolean property in the LogTreeLabel label). The reason for this is that part of a computation may fail (which we want to indicate in the log tree), but then a different strategy is tried which succeeds leading to a successful overall result.

    More Comprehensive Computations

    (An extended example of this kind of thing is the quadratic roots example on GitHub)

    Generally, once a value has been lifted, it is a good idea to keep working with it in that form for as long as possible before accessing the value and written properties. Think monadically! The examples above show a value being lifted into the DescribedComputation. To continue to work monadically, for-comprehensions come into play:

    import treelog.LogTreeSyntaxWithoutAnnotations._
    import scalaz.syntax.show._
    
    val result = for {
       foo <- 1 ~> ("foo = " + _) // Using the overload of ~> that gives us the ''value''
       bar <- 2 ~> ("bar = " + _) // so that we can include it in the log messages
       foobar <- (foo + bar) ~> ("foobar = " + _)
      } yield foobar
    
    println(result.run.value)
    // Will print \/-(3) (i.e. a successful computation of 1 + 2)
    
    println(result.run.written.shows)
    // Will print:
    // No description
    //   foo = 1
    //   bar = 2
    //   foobar = 3

    (For those struggling with the full power of for-comprehensions, I suggest turning the above example into its unsugared flatmap/map form to see what is going on. The central point is that foo will have the value 1, bar will have the value 2, and foobar will have the value 3; the monadic stuff all happens in the background.)

    Non-Leaf Nodes

    Non-leaf nodes (branches) are created explicitly by the developer or implicitly by the LogTreeSyntax under various conditions.

    The log tree above has a root node with 'No description' and three child (leaf) nodes with descriptions obviously obtained from the arguments to the right of the ~> operators in the for-comprehension. This is because the three leaf nodes explicitly created in that for-comprehension need to be placed somewhere while the log tree is produced. An obvious thing to do was to make them child nodes of a branch, which LogTreeSyntax does, using some rules for when to create a new branch to contain existing children and when to just add new children to an existing branch.

    However, at the time the branch is created there is no ready description available for it, hence the "No description" text when the tree is shown using the scalaz.Show defined for it. Producing a hierarchical log isn't much use if we can't describe the non-leaf elements. We can provide a description in two ways (this looks ugly, but read and it will get more elegant…):

    import treelog.LogTreeSyntaxWithoutAnnotations._
    import scalaz.syntax.show._
    
    val result = for {
       foo <- 1 ~> ("foo = " + _) // Using the overload of ~> that gives us the ''value''
       bar <- 2 ~> ("bar = " + _) // so that we can include it in the log messages
       foobar <- (foo + bar) ~> ("foobar = " + _)
      } yield foobar
    
    
    val resultWithDescription1 = result ~> "Adding up"
    println(resultWithDescription1.run.written.shows)
    // Will print:
    // Adding up
    //   foo = 1
    //   bar = 2
    //   foobar = 3
    
    val resultWithDescription2 = "Adding up" ~< result
    println(resultWithDescription2.run.written.shows)
    // Will also print:
    // Adding up
    //   foo = 1
    //   bar = 2
    //   foobar = 3

    The first approach (resultWithDescription1 using ~gt;) will generally be used when a method/function used to provide an intermediate result in the middle of a for-comprehension returns an undescribed root node. Then the code flows quite nicely thus:

    val result = for {
       something <- doSomething() ~> "Something has been done"
       more <- doMore(something) ~> "More has been done"
      } yield more

    Here, doSomething() and doMore(...) return DescribedComputations carrying a log tree with an undescribed root node. They have been given descriptions in the above for-comprehension.

    The second approach (resultWithDescription2 using ~<) will generally be used when a for-comprehension yields a DescribedComputation (which will always have a log tree with an undescribed root node if the for-comprehension has more than one generator), and you want to immediately give the root node a description. In this case, it is more natural to write:

    val result = "Adding up" ~< {
      for {
        foo <- 1 ~> ("foo = " + _)
        bar <- 2 ~> ("bar = " + _)
        foobar <- (foo + bar) ~> ("foobar = " + _)
      } yield foobar
    }

    Both of these approaches are demonstrated in the quadratic roots example. There is no good reason for mixing the two approaches in that example, other than for purposes of demonstration.

    ~< works not only for DescribedComputation, but for any F[DescribedComputation] as long as F has a scalaz.Monad and a scalaz.Traverse defined and available in implicit scope. See BranchLabelingSyntax.

    Special Lifting

    Boolean, Option and \/

    Boolean, Option and \/ (scalaz's Either), have some special syntax ~>? associated with them to allow true, Some(.) and \/-(.) to be treated as successful computational outcomes, and false, None and -\/(.) to be treated as failure conditions. For example:

    val result = false ~>? "Doing a thing with a Boolean"
    println(result.run.value)
    // Will print -\/(Doing a thing with a Boolean) (note that it's a ''left'')
    
    println(result.run.written.shows)
    // Will print:
    // Failed: Doing a thing with a Boolean

    ~>? is overloaded for each of the three types above to allow either a simple description to be given (as in the example above) or for different descriptions to be given in the success versus failure case. Also, in the case of Option and \/, overloads are provided to pass the values contained. See BooleanSyntax, OptionSyntax, EitherSyntax.

    Note that it is easy to get drawn into always using this syntax for these three types. But sometimes, for example, a Boolean false does not indicate a failure in a computation and so ~>? is not appropriate. Keep in mind that failure means that the computation will stop, whereas success will mean that the computation will continue.

    Traversable Monads

    Suppose you have a List[A] and a function f: A => DescribedComputation[B], and you want to apply f(.) to each element of the list to produce DescribedComputations for each element. That's easy enough. But suppose you now want to take all of the 'values' (vs) contained in the list of DescribedComputations thus produced, and create a new DescribedComputation whose value is vs and whose log tree is a branch with a description and whose children are the log trees resulting from each application of f(.).

    We needed to do precisely that very often, so we wrote some syntax for it:

    import treelog.LogTreeSyntaxWithoutAnnotations._
    import scalaz.syntax.show._
    import scalaz.std.list._
    
    val result = List(1, 2, 3) ~>* ("Double the values", x => (x * 2) ~> (y => s"Double $x = $y"))
    
    println(result.run.value)
    // Will print \/-(List(2, 4, 6))
    
    println(result.run.written.shows)
    // Will print:
    // Double the values
    //   Double 1 = 2
    //   Double 2 = 4
    //   Double 3 = 6

    This is particularly useful if there is a possibility that f(.) can produce DescribedComputations that represent failures, because hoisting children into a branch of a log tree gives the branch a successful status only if all of the children are successful (this is true of all syntax that does this). Hence:

    val result = List(1, 2, 3) ~>* ("All even", x => (x % 2 == 0) ~>? s"Testing if $x is even")
    
    println(result.run.value)
    // Will print -\/(All even) - Notice that it's a 'left', meaning failure
    
    println(result.run.written.shows)
    // Will print:
    // Failed: All even
    //   Failed: Testing if 1 is even
    //   Testing if 2 is even
    //   Failed: Testing if 3 is even

    ~>* works not only for List, but for all kinds that have a scalaz.Monad and a scalaz.Traverse defined and available in implicit scope. See TraversableMonadSyntax.

    Another common thing you might want to do with a collection of DescribedComputations is retain their logs as children of a parent whose value is some function of the child values. Here is an example of summing the result of several computations:

    val parts = List(1 ~> "One", 2 ~> "Two")
    val summed = "Sum" ~<+ (parts, (bits: List[Int]) => bits.sum)
    
    println(summed.run.written.shows)
    // Will print:
    Sum
      One
      Two
    
    println(summed.run.value)
    // Will print \/-(3)

    Annotations

    Nodes in the log tree can be annotated with important information for your program to use later. This is useful, for example, when you want to audit a process that affects multiple entities, and you want to make sure that the audit trail is associated with each of the modified entities. You can use the annotation facility to carry the key (or something richer) for each modified entity.

    The ~~ operator (see AnnotationsSyntax) is provided for this purpose. It can be applied to any DescribedComputation and it will add the given annotation to the set of annotations at the current root node of the log tree. Annotations can be of any type, but must all be of the same type for a particular log tree. You choose the type of annotations by instantiating the 'Annotation' type parameter of LogTreeSyntax

    Here is a simple example using Strings as the annotations type:

    val stringAnnotateableLogTreeSyntax = new treelog.LogTreeSyntax[String] {}
    import stringAnnotateableLogTreeSyntax._
    import scalaz.syntax.show._
    import scalaz.std.string._
    
    val result = 1 ~> "This is the description" ~~ "This is the annotation"
    
    println(result.run.value)
    // Will print \/-(1)
    
    println(result.run.written.shows)
    // Will print:
    // This is the description - ["This is the annotation"]

    See the annotations example for a more comprehensive example.

    Definition Classes
    root
  • DescribedLogTreeLabel
  • LogTreeLabel
  • LogTreeSyntax
  • LogTreeSyntaxWithoutAnnotations
  • SerializableTree
  • Tree
  • TreeInstances
  • UndescribedLogTreeLabel

object Tree extends TreeInstances

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    Leaf represents a tree node with no children.

    Leaf represents a tree node with no children.

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    Node represents a tree node that may have children.

    Node represents a tree node that may have children.

    You can use Node for tree construction or pattern matching.

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